Vodka can be made with any ingredient that has fermentable sugar. Cereal grains like rye, barley and wheat are most common, but it can also be made with potatoes, grapes and sugar beets, among other things. Potatoes and wheat produce creamier vodkas, rye makes a spicy spirit, and grapes lend delicate floral notes.
Vodka is typically distilled to a high strength in a column still, though premium versions may be made in a pot still. It is usually filtered once to several times with ingredients ranging from charcoal and quartz to diamonds and silver. Filtration is performed to remove impurities, and a careful balance must be achieved so as to not strip away aromas and flavour during the process. After filtration, vodka is bottled unaged, usually at the standard 80 proof. Most vodkas are 30-40% ABV.